Fill in the blanks:

Answer: Bandwidth.

Answer: Circuit Switching

Answer: Nodes of the network.

Multiple Choice Questions:

4) The greater the bandwidth of a given medium, the __ is the data transfer rate
a. higher
b. lower
c. both a and b

d. neither a nor b

5) What is the approximate bandwidth of a typical voice signal?
a. 2KHz
b. 2MHz
c. 3KHz
d. 3MHz

Unit-1 BASICS OF NETWORKING AND WEB ARCHITECTURE Important questions(Exercise)

3.Expand the following:

a. ARPANET. :Advanced Research Projects Agency NET.
b. DTR : data transfer rate
c. NIU : network interface unit 
d. ISP : Internet Service Provider
e. FTP : File Transfer Protocol
f. TCP : Transmission Control Protocol
g. SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
h. VoIP : Voice over Internet Protocol



Answer: A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A network allows sharing of files, data, and other types of information giving authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers on the network.

Answer: 1.If the file server breaks down, the files on the file server become inaccessible.

2. Virus can spread to other computers throughout a computer network.

Answer: Every network includes:
● At least two computers – Server or Client workstation.
● Network Interface Cards (NIC) A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication between networked computers and peripherals is also possible.
● Network Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000,Unix and Linux.

Answer: Dedicated server is the one which can help the client’s workstations to just have properly authorized access request associating to software, hardware whereas, a non dedicated server permits to utilize itself as a workstation as well as gives the facility of sharing the resources with other computers on the internet.

Answer: Channel: A communication channel is a medium that is used in the transmission of a message from one point to another. we can say that it is a pathway over which data is transferred between remote devices.

We have three broad categories of communication channels –

1.Narrow band which is slow and used for telegraph lines and low speed terminals;

2. Voice band used for ordinary telephone communication

3. Broadband which is fastest and is used for transmitting large volumes of data at high speeds.

Answer: Bandwidth: Bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies available for transmission of data. It is expressed as the difference in Hertz(Hz) between the highest frequency and the lowest frequency. Wider the bandwidth of a communication system, greater is the capacity and hence greater is the amount of data that can be transmitted over a period of time.

DTR: (DTR) is the amount of data in digital form that is moved from one place to another in a given time on a network. The greater the bandwidth of a given medium, the higher is the data transfer rate. Data transfer rate is often measured in bits per second (bps).

Answer: WAN

Answer: Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Answer: Local Area networks (LAN)

Answer: A transmission medium refers to the channel of transmission through which data transmitted from one node to another in the form of signal. A transmission medium may belong to of the following two categories:

● Guided Medium: The term refers to physical conductors such as twisted pairs, coaxial cable, and fiber optics. In twisted pair and coaxial cable, the signal travels as voltage and current signal whereas in optical fibre, light.
● Unguided Medium: The unguided medium uses electro not require a physical conductor. Examples of unguided medium include microwave, radio wave, infrared.

Answer: The arrangement (also called layout) of nodes in a network is called network topology. There are broadly two types of topologies: broadcast and point to point

Answer: Advantages:

  • It is very reliable – if one cable or device fails then all the others will still work
  • It is high-performing as no data collisions can occur
  • Less expensive because each device only need one I/O port and wishes to be connected with hub with one link.
  • Easier to put in


  • Requires more cable than a linear bus .
  • If the connecting network device (network switch) fails, nodes attached are disabled and can’t participate in network communication.
  • More expensive than linear bus topology due to the value of the connecting devices (network switches)
  • If hub goes down everything goes down, none of the devices can work without hub.


● Tree Topology
tree topology is a hybrid topology using a combination of star and bus topology. Backbone cable in a bus topology acts like the stem of the tree, and star networks are connected to the main tree topology is a hybrid topology using a combination of star and bus topology. Backbone cable in a bus topology acts like the stem of the tree, and star networks (and even individual nodes) are connected to the main backbone cable like the branches of

● Bus Topology
In bus topology, there is a long cable, called backbone cable (or simply backbone), that connects various nodes through a connector called tap. In this, a message sent by one is received by all devices connected to backbone cable. This
topology requires less cabling and is easy to install and extend the network laid using it. however, fault detection and isolation is difficult.


a. Bus topology

b. Star topology


a. Local Area Network

b. Repeater

Answer: Optical Fiber cable

Answer: transmission medium is Fiber optical cable. Type of network is WAN.

Answer: Wired transmission medium – Optical fiber cable Type of network – MAN.

Answer: SMTP Protocol(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)


a. Hub or Switch

b. Modem

Answer: Gateway establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external network with completely different structures.

Answer: FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

Answer: HTTP is used to upload hypertext documents on the internet.

Answer: PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer using a MODEM connected by phone line to a server.

Answer: The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to deliver e-mail messages over the Internet. This protocol is used by most e-mail clients to deliver messages to the server, and is also used by servers to forward messages to their final destination. 

Answer: Telnet is used to implement remote login.

Answer: IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is used for chatting between two groups or between two individuals

Answer: Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is used to transfer voice using packet switched networks.

Answer: A remote access protocol is responsible for managing the connection between a remote access server and a remote computer. PPP is a remote access protocol that allows you to implement TCP/IP. It creates a connection with a remote machine.

Answer: Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allowing you to make voice calls over a broadband Internet connection instead of an analog (regular) phone line. Some VoIP services offer features and services that are not available with a traditional phone. It provide smoother connection than an analog signal.


Web Architecture can be defined as the conceptual structure of the internet. The WWW or internet is a constantly changing medium that enables communication between different users and the technical interaction between different systems and subsystems.

Types of web architectures
I) Client-server model: Initially, the web consisted of a two-tiered architecture: clients and servers. Clients and servers shared the tasks and services that the system was supposed to perform. Example: Web Server.

II) Three-tier model: Three-tier models include an application logic between the client and the server, which handles the data processing and allows a certain degree of interaction. For example, an application server can process data while a database server is dedicated solely to data storage.

III) Service-oriented architectures (SOA): With SOAs, business processes can be automated by the involved systems communicating with one another – partly without human intervention – and performing certain tasks. Examples include online banking, e-commerce, e-learning etc.

Worm: A worm is often received via network, and it automatically keeps on creating several copies of itself on the hard disk thereby flooding the hard disk. When a worm is received as an email attachment, it is automatically forwarded to the recipients leading to network congestion. Thus a worm may crash the system and entire network. No host application is required for worms to replicate themselves.

An amendment in IT Act 2000 named Information Technology Amendment Act,2008 was also introduced. The act also defines offences and penalties for cyber-crime. Cyber police are responsible for detecting such crimes and taking the necessary measure against it according to the IT Act.
Cyber offences under IT Act
● Tampering with computer source documents – Section 65
● Hacking -Section 66
● Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form -Section 67

Patent: Patent is a term used for a specific product designed by an individual. The designer is given exclusive rights over the patent for a limited period of time. With help of the patent right, the owner can stop others from making, using or selling the product design. The owner can take a legal action if someone uses the patent without his/ her permission.

Trademark: Trademark can be defined as a name or a different sign or a device identifying a product or a service. The product or the service is produced or provided by a specific person or a company. A Trademark is also known as brand name. It should be officially registered and legally restricted to the use of the specific person or the company.

Copyright: Copyright is the term used for a written document. A legal action can be taken, if copyrights are violated. The following category of work can be considered for copyrights. literary works musical works, including any accompanying words

Cracking: Crackers are people who hack a system by breaking into it and violating it with some bad intentions. They may hack a system remotely for stealing the contained data or for harming it permanently.

When the user browses a website, the web server sends a text file to the web browser in the form of cookies.

One thought on “Unit-1 BASICS OF NETWORKING AND WEB ARCHITECTURE Important questions”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *